USCIS Processing Times for Form I-485 | September 2020

When were the I-485 Processing Times last updated?

USCIS last updated the ‘50%’ and ‘93%’ data for all USCIS Field Offices on August 25th, 2020.

When will my I-485 be adjudicated?
Before we get into the details, based on the averages of the last 12 months, the percentage of I-485s processed at a typical USCIS Field Office look something like that:

What to expect in terms of performance?
We used averages of the last 12 months for this analysis.

Generally for the 50%, most USCIS Field Offices are in the 9 to 11.5 months. If yours is below that, you are lucky, and if it is above that, you are unlucky.

Generally for the 93%, most USCIS Field Offices are in the 20 to 25 months.

Are the busiest offices the slowest?
Generally, yes, especially when it comes to the ‘93%’. The following graph shows how all USCIS Field Offices are doing in terms of ‘50%’ (Low) and ‘93%’ (High), but we are showing the names of only the Top 10 USCIS Field Offices by volume (based on the number of Form I-485 adjudicated by the office). If you are on the top right hand side corner, it means that you are doing poorly on the ‘50%’ as well as the ‘93%’, and you can see that the top offices by volume are over represented there.

Form I-485 Processing Times per USCIS Field Office.

USCIS Field Office
Low
High
Ranking
Last 12 Months
Inquiry
Agana GU1230.529Low: 8.5 / 12 months; High: 23.5 / 35.5 monthsApr 25, 2018
Albany NY1230.529Low: 8.5 / 12 months; High: 23.5 / 35.5 monthsApr 25, 2018
Albuquerque NM1230.565Low: 5.5 / 12 months; High: 10.5 / 35.5 monthsApr 25, 2018
Anchorage AK1230.529Low: 8.5 / 12 months; High: 23.5 / 35.5 monthsApr 25, 2018
Atlanta GA1230.574Low: 6.5 / 12.5 months; High: 20 / 45 monthsApr 25, 2018
Baltimore MD1230.584Low: 9.5 / 18.5 months; High: 29.5 / 38.5 monthsApr 25, 2018
Boise ID1230.550Low: 8.5 / 12 months; High: 23.5 / 35.5 monthsApr 25, 2018
Boston MA10.521.526Low: 5.5 / 14.5 months; High: 13.5 / 42 monthsJan 16, 2019
Brooklyn NY1729.585Low: 12 / 19 months; High: 23 / 36.5 monthsMay 23, 2018
Buffalo NY1230.524Low: 8.5 / 12 months; High: 22 / 35.5 monthsApr 25, 2018
Charleston SC1230.566Low: 7 / 12 months; High: 14 / 35.5 monthsApr 25, 2018
Charlotte Amalie VI1230.529Low: 8.5 / 12 months; High: 23.5 / 35.5 monthsApr 25, 2018
Charlotte NC1230.514Low: 6 / 12 months; High: 12.5 / 35.5 monthsApr 25, 2018
Chicago IL10.537.580Low: 6 / 14 months; High: 23.5 / 39 monthsSep 18, 2017
Christiansted VI1230.529Low: 8.5 / 12 months; High: 23.5 / 35.5 monthsApr 25, 2018
Cincinnati OH1230.529Low: 8.5 / 12 months; High: 23.5 / 35.5 monthsApr 25, 2018
Cleveland OH1023.560Low: 8.5 / 12 months; High: 23.5 / 35.5 monthsNov 27, 2018
Columbus OH1230.527Low: 8.5 / 12 months; High: 23.5 / 35.5 monthsApr 25, 2018
Dallas TX12.532.558Low: 8 / 15 months; High: 19.5 / 35 monthsFeb 25, 2018
Denver CO1230.568Low: 6.5 / 12 months; High: 21.5 / 39.5 monthsApr 25, 2018
Des Moines IA1230.529Low: 8.5 / 12 months; High: 23.5 / 35.5 monthsApr 25, 2018
Detroit MI1230.53Low: 6 / 12 months; High: 12.5 / 35.5 monthsApr 25, 2018
El Paso TX11168Low: 5 / 12 months; High: 11.5 / 35.5 monthsJul 13, 2019
Fort Myers FL1230.552Low: 8.5 / 12 months; High: 23.5 / 35.5 monthsApr 25, 2018
Fort Smith AR1230.529Low: 8.5 / 12 months; High: 23.5 / 35.5 monthsApr 25, 2018
Fresno CA1230.51Low: 5.5 / 12 months; High: 10.5 / 35.5 monthsApr 25, 2018
Greer SC1230.529Low: 8.5 / 12 months; High: 23.5 / 35.5 monthsApr 25, 2018
Harlingen TX913.52Low: 5.5 / 11.5 months; High: 13 / 35.5 monthsSep 21, 2019
Hartford CT141767Low: 9.5 / 12 months; High: 16.5 / 35.5 monthsJun 8, 2019
Helena MT1230.529Low: 8.5 / 12 months; High: 23.5 / 35.5 monthsApr 25, 2018
Hialeah FL1230.577Low: 6.5 / 22.5 months; High: 18.5 / 35.5 monthsApr 25, 2018
Honolulu HI1230.528Low: 8.5 / 12 months; High: 23.5 / 35.5 monthsApr 25, 2018
Houston TX15.53776Low: 10 / 15.5 months; High: 23.5 / 38.5 monthsOct 5, 2017
Imperial CA1230.529Low: 8.5 / 12 months; High: 23.5 / 35.5 monthsApr 25, 2018
Indianapolis IN101753Low: 6 / 12 months; High: 16.5 / 35.5 monthsJun 6, 2019
Jacksonville FL1230.562Low: 6 / 12 months; High: 13 / 35.5 monthsApr 25, 2018
Kansas City MO101423Low: 5.5 / 12 months; High: 20 / 35.5 monthsAug 30, 2019
Kendall FL1230.579Low: 8.5 / 20.5 months; High: 25.5 / 35.5 monthsApr 25, 2018
Las Vegas NV1230.515Low: 8 / 13 months; High: 16.5 / 35.5 monthsApr 25, 2018
Lawrence MA928.578Low: 5 / 12 months; High: 15.5 / 39.5 monthsJun 19, 2018
Long Island NY1230.575Low: 7 / 12 months; High: 22 / 36.5 monthsApr 25, 2018
Los Angeles CA1230.55Low: 6 / 11 months; High: 14 / 35.5 monthsApr 25, 2018
Los Angeles County CA1228.512Low: 8 / 12 months; High: 16.5 / 35.5 monthsJun 24, 2018
Louisville KY1230.529Low: 8.5 / 12 months; High: 23.5 / 35.5 monthsApr 25, 2018
Manchester NH1230.529Low: 8.5 / 12 months; High: 23.5 / 35.5 monthsApr 25, 2018
Memphis TN9.515.516Low: 5 / 12 months; High: 11 / 35.5 monthsJul 16, 2019
Miami FL1230.586Low: 8.5 / 23.5 months; High: 25 / 40.5 monthsApr 25, 2018
Milwaukee WI1230.522Low: 6.5 / 12 months; High: 18.5 / 35.5 monthsApr 25, 2018
Minneapolis-St. Paul MN1230.564Low: 8 / 14 months; High: 13.5 / 35.5 monthsApr 25, 2018
Montgomery AL133021Low: 7 / 12 months; High: 15 / 35.5 monthsApr 30, 2018
Mount Laurel NJ1230.517Low: 6 / 12 months; High: 15 / 35.5 monthsApr 25, 2018
Nashville TN1217.599UnknownMay 19, 2019
Newark NJ15.52687Low: 11 / 21.5 months; High: 27 / 38 monthsSep 11, 2018
New Orleans LA1230.557Low: 6.5 / 12 months; High: 14 / 35.5 monthsApr 25, 2018
New York City NY1631.588Low: 11 / 21.5 months; High: 27 / 38 monthsMar 25, 2018
Norfolk VA1230.510Low: 7 / 12 months; High: 15.5 / 35.5 monthsApr 25, 2018
Oakland Park FL1230.583Low: 9 / 18 months; High: 23.5 / 38 monthsApr 25, 2018
Oklahoma City OK1230.551Low: 5.5 / 12 months; High: 12.5 / 35.5 monthsApr 25, 2018
Omaha NE1230.561Low: 8.5 / 12 months; High: 12 / 35.5 monthsApr 25, 2018
Orlando FL1230.569Low: 9.5 / 13.5 months; High: 18 / 35.5 monthsApr 25, 2018
Philadelphia PA1434.513Low: 6.5 / 12 months; High: 18 / 35.5 monthsDec 14, 2017
Phoenix AZ1230.573Low: 7.5 / 19 months; High: 19.5 / 35.5 monthsApr 25, 2018
Pittsburgh PA1230.529Low: 8.5 / 12 months; High: 23.5 / 35.5 monthsApr 25, 2018
Portland ME1230.529Low: 8.5 / 12 months; High: 23.5 / 35.5 monthsApr 25, 2018
Portland OR1230.520Low: 6.5 / 12 months; High: 16 / 35.5 monthsApr 25, 2018
Providence RI1230.556Low: 7 / 12 months; High: 14.5 / 35.5 monthsApr 25, 2018
Queens NY14.537.572Low: 6.5 / 17.5 months; High: 21 / 35.5 monthsSep 14, 2017
Raleigh NC102218Low: 5.5 / 12 months; High: 17 / 35.5 monthsJan 2, 2019
Reno NV1230.529Low: 8.5 / 12 months; High: 23.5 / 35.5 monthsApr 25, 2018
Sacramento CA1230.519Low: 9 / 16 months; High: 17.5 / 35.5 monthsApr 25, 2018
Saint Albans VT1230.529Low: 8.5 / 12 months; High: 23.5 / 35.5 monthsApr 25, 2018
Saint Louis MO1230.529Low: 8.5 / 12 months; High: 23.5 / 35.5 monthsApr 25, 2018
Salt Lake City UT1230.555Low: 6.5 / 15.5 months; High: 15 / 35.5 monthsApr 25, 2018
San Antonio TX10174Low: 6 / 11 months; High: 11 / 35.5 monthsJun 3, 2019
San Bernardino CA1230.57Low: 6 / 12 months; High: 13.5 / 35.5 monthsApr 25, 2018
San Diego CA1230.56Low: 6 / 12 months; High: 15.5 / 35.5 monthsApr 25, 2018
San Fernando Valley CA1230.571Low: 7 / 16 months; High: 16.5 / 35.5 monthsApr 25, 2018
San Francisco CA1230.582Low: 11 / 18 months; High: 20 / 35.5 monthsApr 25, 2018
San Jose CA1230.570Low: 9.5 / 16 months; High: 16 / 35.5 monthsApr 25, 2018
San Juan PR1230.529Low: 8.5 / 12 months; High: 23.5 / 35.5 monthsApr 25, 2018
Santa Ana CA13.527.559Low: 9.5 / 13.5 months; High: 16.5 / 35.5 monthsJul 22, 2018
Seattle WA1230.581Low: 11 / 19 months; High: 19.5 / 35.5 monthsApr 25, 2018
Spokane WA1230.529Low: 8.5 / 12 months; High: 23.5 / 35.5 monthsApr 25, 2018
Tampa FL1230.59Low: 6.5 / 12 months; High: 17.5 / 35.5 monthsApr 25, 2018
Tucson AZ10.515.554Low: 6 / 12 months; High: 13 / 35.5 monthsJul 26, 2019
Washington DC1230.525Low: 9.5 / 12 months; High: 21.5 / 35.5 monthsApr 25, 2018
West Palm Beach FL1230.511Low: 7 / 12 months; High: 18 / 35.5 monthsApr 25, 2018
Wichita KS1230.563Low: 8 / 12 months; High: 8.5 / 35.5 monthsApr 25, 2018
Yakima WA1230.529Low: 8.5 / 12 months; High: 23.5 / 35.5 monthsApr 25, 2018

  • ‘Low’ is the low-end of the range communicated by USCIS for the Field Office, expressed in ‘months’. It is the ‘best-case’ scenario. It means that USCIS makes a decision (following the Interview) on 50% of the filed I-485s within the ‘low’ number of months;
  • ‘High’ is the high-end, the ‘worst-case’ scenario, the time its takes USCIS to make a decision on 93% of I-485s it received.
  • If it takes longer for you than the ‘High’, then it means that the Receipt Date of your I-485 is before the ‘Case Inquiry Date’ and that you are allowed to get in touch with USCIS.
  • The data is refreshed and updated every morning (Eastern Time of the United States), because certain elements, such as the ‘Case Inquiry Dates’ are updated every day.
  • The data provided is exclusively for Family I-485 (not Employment).

Your Detailed I-485 Timeline.

What’s different about Form I-485 Processing Times?
Form I-485 is one of the few forms (along with Forms I-751, I-90, and N-400) to benefit from the new USCIS Processing Times methodology rolled out in April 2018, which means that:

  • They better reflect the time it takes applicants to get an answer on their I-485 (not USCIS ‘backlog’ like before);
  • They are updated more regularly (almost every month, compared to every 3 months before);
  • It communicates clearly, through the ‘Case Inquiry Date’, whether the applicant is allowed to get in touch with USCIS because it is taking too long.

Which immigration forms have new processing times?

Form I-485 (adjust status), Form I-751 (remove conditions on a two-year green card obtained though marriage), Form I-90 (renew a 10-year green cards), N-400 (naturalize to acquire U.S. citizenship).


Why the change?

The processing times displayed by USCIS have been unhelpful to applicants for years. The goal is to get relevant information to applicants.


Does that mean that USCIS will process applications faster?

Unfortunately the answer is no. USCIS changed the way they will communicate about their process in the future, but they have not changed the process itself.

What do the new processing times mean?

The processing times now display an ‘Estimated Time Range’ in months for each of the four forms, and for each USCIS Service Center and each USCIS Field Office. Here is an example for the Boston Field Office for all forms I-485 (family and employment):

USCIS General Processing Time

Our first recommendation is, when applicable, to look at the more specific range at the bottom of the page. Here, we will focus on family-based I-485s:

USCIS Family and Employment Processing Time

This means that, for family-based I-485s, starting with the date the I-485 is filed:

  • 50% of the I-485 are adjudicated within 7 months of their filing
  • 93% of the I-485 are adjudicated within 18 months of their filing

What about the ‘Case Inquiry Date’?

What USCIS is essentially saying is that, if you are part of the 7% that are beyond the high range of the processing times, you can get in touch with them through an ‘outside of processing time’ request. In the Boston Field Office, for family-based I-485s, you can submit a request if you submitted your I-485 before October 10th, 2016:

USCIS Case Inquiry Date


How often are the USCIS processing times updated by USCIS?

USCIS is updating the processing times every month (as opposed to every 3 months in the ‘old’ approach).

The Case Inquiry Date is said to be ‘rolling’: once the processing times are updated for a given month, the Case Inquiry Date progresses automatically by one day, every day.

What about the other forms, including Form I-130?

This is a ‘pilot’, so a trial based on which USCIS says they will gather feedback, adjust their methodology if need be, and then extend to other forms. The calendar associated with a broader rollout is not known.

The forms that are not part of the pilot are now displaying a range. The range is made of the old date and the old date + 30%. Because the ‘old’ date is still computed using the ‘old’ backlog-driven methodology, this is not an improvement as much as a vague attempt at managing applicants’ expectations.


What do the Case Interview Dates released by USCIS for family I-485s tell you?

The ‘Case Inquiry Date’ is derived from the ‘high’ (or 93% completion). The issue here is that the ‘high’ can change from one month to the next, changing in turn the ‘Case Inquiry Date’. By how much? On average +/- 2.75 months every month for USCIS Field Offices.

What is Immigration Planner’s preliminary analysis of the new approach?

Like many, we are delighted that USCIS is tackling the processing time issue and we will certainly provide our feedback and the one of our community to USCIS. This is our current assessment:

  • The ‘Case Inquiry Date’ is an improvement, because it is clear and actionable by applicants.
  • Focusing more specifically on Form I-485, the new processing time range is an improvement but its impact is currently reduced by the following factors:
    • The filing date of Form I-485 for some applicants has been dictated by the ‘Filing Date’ of the Visa Bulletin, when the actual adjudication is guided by the ‘Final Action Date’ of the Visa Bulletin. As a result, it seems that the processing time range could be materially impacted by the fluctuations of the ‘distance’ between Filing and Action Dates.
    • The computations include the time associated with Request for Evidence (RFE) for applicants who receive one. The numbers would be more meaningful to applicants if processing times without RFE were known, and separate numbers associated with the impact of RFEs were communicated.
    • The computations are based only on last month’s completion. Such a small sample size might inflate volatility, although it is hard to say at this point.
  • The new ‘range’ using the ‘old’ methodology for forms not part of the pilot is not convincing at all. It is simply artificially broadening a range, acknowledging that the old approach lead applicants to be too optimistic because they misunderstood the data.
  • USCIS is using different percentages in different situation. For instance, the ‘personalized’ processing time accessible to applicants through myUSCIS will be based on the time it takes for 80% of the applications to be adjudicated. 80% is neither the 50% or the 93% that is used for USCIS Offices. We are not saying this is a bad idea, but the rationale behind the choice is not completely clear. Traditionally, USCIS would first communicate the average processing time for all applicants and then communicate the extent of the ‘dispersion’ around that average.